Official Site of Speaker, Historian and Author Sean Munger


Historic Painting: “A Clinical Lesson at the Salpêtrière” by Brouillet, 1887.

This dramatic and fascinating painting is famous not so much for its artist and what it depicts, but where it’s been displayed, and by whom. A Clinical Lesson at the Salpêtrière was painted in 1887 by André Brouillet, a scene painter who was a student of Jean-Léon Gérôme–one of my favorite artists and whose work has appeared on this blog before, most notably here (though also here as well). The Salpêtrière was a famous research hospital in Paris in the late 19th century. In the scene a number of famous doctors of the time, including neurology pioneer Jean-Martin Charcot, are examining a woman suffering from “hysteria”–a catch-all psychological diagnosis of the time, which is in fact a highly gendered and pejorative term which was used to describe behavior thought endemic to women. All of the doctors and even the nurses depicted here were real people who were active in the Paris medical scene at this time.

The original of A Clinical Lesson at the Salpêtrière drifted around France for many decades, eventually winding up at Descartes University where it hangs today. However, the picture is very famous because a reproduction of it–a lithograph produced right after it was painted–hung on the wall of the office of one Dr. Sigmund Freud, the pioneer of psychotherapy. Freud loved this picture so much that it hung on the wall of his office for his entire career. When he fled Austria in 1938 after Hitler took over that country in the Anschluss, Freud took his copy of the picture with him and hung it on the wall of his new office in London. Freud died in 1939 just three weeks after the outbreak of World War II.

I’ve been reading a lot about Freud lately, as well as his arch-rival Carl Jung, and their fascinating theories on psychology. Substantively I think Freud’s theories are utter rubbish, and I think Jung was on to something with at least parts of his philosophy; but you can’t deny that Freud had an amazing life and was quite influential in the intellectual history of the 20th century. The fact that this very cool painting is a part of his milieu is just another interesting little detail.

For his part, Brouillet, the artist, was not very distinguished. I’m not sure what else he painted, though I’m curious to find out. He died in 1914.

In Freudian terms I’m not sure what my interest in this painting says about me. Do I secretly hate my mother? Does it represent the transference of my superego and projection of my sexual hang-ups? You be the judge.

This painting is in the public domain.


  1. Well, I can’t speak on your perception as I don’t know all of your background, but the first thing I saw was a woman in an off-the shoulder blouse passed out in front of a roomful of men. She has made it very easy for them to do whatever they want, which is exactly what they (men) want. Psychologically speaking this picture speaks to my inability to trust men (due to past experiences) Including Freud, and the woman’s stupidity. Actually I can see that you’re interests include history, so maybe you secretly want to be a therapist with a beard and a pipe who sits back and contemplates humanity. Ok, this was fun. Thanks for the post, Sean and the picture. If I had money I would totally be an art collector.

  2. Dear Sean: good afternoon and thanks for reviewing this painting whose copy has bedn the presentation of my web page for the past year. I have to point out that Freud loved this picture because he did a “stage” with Charcot for several weeks and he was one if those admiring students we see seated in front of the theatrical presentation of Charcot practicing hypnosis on a femsle patient. Today I put up an article called “The first man that listened to women” in my web psge at: https://drmolaplume
    Au revoir!

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